How it works The Switchgear substation Equipment's

Thursday, 27 July 2017

How it works The Switch gear substation Equipment's



The switchgear refers to the series of the switching devices required for a low, medium or excessive voltage electrical circuit. It consists of switching and protection gadgets such as fuses, circuit breakers, isolators, disconnect switches, relays and other devices that manipulate the drift of electricity.
These devices are used to change the electric energy on and off for transformers, motors, generators, transmission lines, and electricity networks in homes, commercial, industrial, transmission and distribution systems.
The switchgear consists of two fundamental components:
Power switching/conducting aspect such as a circuit breaker, fuse, or lightning arrester that can disconnect the drift of strength when there is a fault.

Power control components such as protective relays, manage panels, contemporary transformers and different devices to monitor, defend and control the electricity conduction elements and the electrical equipment.
The switch gears are used at a variety of points of an installation. In the industrial setup, the switch gear controls the strength to the manufacturing techniques whilst at the utilities, the switch gear is used to run the electric grid. In commercial buildings, it is used to furnish and manipulate power to the masses whilst imparting safety to the hundreds and the installation.
The switch gear permits the switching on and off of the generators, electrical equipment, transmission, distributors and different circuits at some stage in the ordinary working conditions. However, underneath fault conditions, the switch gear is designed to become aware of the faults and interrupt the float of electrical energy to the affected section, for that reason disconnecting and setting apart it from the wholesome circuit.
For efficient operation, the switch gear be speedy in operation and have an choice of manual manipulate to be used when the automated feature is no longer working.
The switch gears are required at all switching factors of an electrical network. The ratings of the gadgets at every stage rely on the voltage levels at that point. Other than in distribution and transmission networks, the switch gears are used in residential, commercial, industrial circuits. 
he switch gears are classified according to the voltage levels involved in the circuit of application. 
The three classes are:
  •  High voltage Switchgear 
  •  Medium voltage Switchgear  &
  • Low voltage Switchgear
 

Engineering Words for EEE CSE Job Viva Question Answers

Wednesday, 10 May 2017

Engineering Words for EEE CSE Job Viva MCQ Question Answers



Capacity
The greatest load a weighing machine is designed to weigh.
Sometimes marked on it as ‘Max’.
Calibration
Specific types of measurement performed on measuring
instruments to establish the relationship between the indicated values and known values of a measured quantity.
NB: The term ‘calibration’ as defined internationally does not include adjustment of the instrument.
Range
The least and greatest load for which a machine is or can be used, and for which continuous mass values will be displayed with the same resolution.
Repeatability
A measure of a weighing machine’s ability to display the same result when repeated measurements are made under the same weighing conditions.
Resolution
The mass value of the smallest scale or digital interval displayed
by the weighing machine. Sometimes marked on it as ‘d’.
Span
The mass value of the difference between the greatest and least
load for which continuous mass values will be displayed with the
same resolution.
Sensitivity
The number of divisions change in reading per
unit mass.
Tare
Facility which enables the weighing machine reading to be
adjusted to read zero with an object on the load receptor.
Turning point
The reading at the extremity of the swing of the pointer, ie, where
it changes its direction of motion.
Not applicable to digital indicating devices.
Uncertainty
The amount by which a true value may differ from a measured
value, at a given confidence level.
 

Nine Point Calibration of Needle Detector Cintex Hashima

Monday, 9 January 2017


Industrial sensor

A model garment is doing all merchandise to be checked 100% with a industrial sensor before cargo in the end producing operations are completed. This check is being allotted when the ultimate examination and packaging of the garment (incl. attachment of swing tickets) however before packing/boxing the products within the metal free port and ar being the a part of the ultimate internal control procedure. Industrial metal detectors ar associate degree aid to stop metal contamination and ar the most effective thanks to make sure that needle management procedures are effective, however don't seem to be to getting used to switch an efficient needle replacement policy. Metal detection are being enforced inside the assembly method and employed in conjunction with the broken needle procedure.


Metal Detector standardization Procedure:  Machines ar being tag each operating day with this take a look at card, at the start and at thend of every reviewheap, likewise as once the machine is started up, then each hour and at the top of a operating day likewise as when any electricity cuts. If a difficulty is found with the machine at future standardisation, the products that were done since the last fortunate standardisation want re-checking, therefore the smaller the gap between calibrations checks the smaller the amount of products that ar being re-checked. If the machine is to be got wind of order when a check, it's being organized for imperative repair and a replacement to hide for the time the machine are going to be out of order. this can be being done through a static sensor. it's being ensured tho', that no orders leave the manufacturing plant, that's not been checked, particularly just in case of kids swears. The following sensor standardisation procedure ar being adhered to once checking the machine. Please see below diagram for the dimension across the belt of the sensor and wherever the take a look at card ought to sit once tested at rock bottom, center and high position: CROSS SECTION TUNNEL NEEDLE DETECTOR

TOP A7 A8 A9
CENTRE A4 A5 A6
BOTTOM A1 A2 A3
 

Metal Detector standardization Checklist:


Switch on the machine and set the sensitivity level to but one.2mm sphere. Position the take a look at card directly onto the transporter at position A1. Let the cardboard submit to the search head. The sensor is being activated and also the alarm is sound. Repeat the higher than steps 1-3 with the take a look at card in positions A2 and A3. Again the detector is being activated and also the alarm is sound. The take a look at card is golf stroke through on its own, we have a tendency to don't seem to be place it on a paper or place it through with a garment. Repeat steps 1-3 with the take a look at card positioned within the middle of a stand (7-8cm high) or on high of a stand that's around 3-4cm high (depending on the peak of the gap between transporter and high of machine) at positions A4, A5, A6. Again the sensor is being activated and also the alarm is in sound. The stand ar being a non-detectable block made from plastic material. Repeat steps 1-3 with the take a look at card on the highest of a stand (7-8cm high or as high because the gap permits for) at positions A7, A8, A9 and once more the sensor standardization procedure aer being activated and also the alarm are in sound. Records ar being unbroken of all of those checks by satisfaction the visit kind.  In case the machine fails to pass the standardization take a look at, it's instantly being turned off associate degree re-calibrated by an authorized technician. All merchandise checked when the last standardization is being re-checked once traditional operations of the detector are re-established.

 Machines ar being tag a minimum of each six months by the manufacturer. Calibration certificates ar being obtained and being unbroken for auditing functions. If for any reason the detector are being settled, it's being re-calibrated by the supplier’s authorized technical service. Regular maintenance (at least annually) of the detector is being allotted by the supplier’s authorized technical service supported the periods got wind of by them. Records for maintenance and any re-calibration created by the provider are being unbroken, just in case these got to be provided throughout any audits. Metal detection:  When playacting the metal detection it's being ensured that merchandise ar placed on the moving transporter one by one with comfortable area in between merchandise, so there's no overlap. If merchandise ar being shipped e.g. on hangers that ar metal and can't be more matured the sensor, the products ar being started the hanger, more matured the sensor and so re-hung. it's permissible for the hangers to be touched through the metal via a door. This method ar dominant by the authorised person and solely the proper quantity of hangers per order ar to be control at anybody time, no spare hangers to be hold on. As a general guideline tho' clothes be metal detected as last as potential within the production method and any metal metal things ar being connected within the metal free port, like security tags, hangers etc. The metal free port don't seem to be getting used for general storage and ar being tidy. Once product is boxed or decorated is to be taken to dispatch. Handheld sensor conjointly used for this In case of stone laundry the clothes ar being metal checked before laundry because the stone mud contains little metal particles that have associate degree adverse result to metal detection. Any clothes or a part of a garment that ar being outsourced for the appliance of a print, embroidery or the other method ar being metal detected upon receipt back to the manufacturing plant, before continued production. this can be to make sure that no whole or broken needle items, staples, alternative stray metals or sharp objects arwithin the came back items. The manufacturing plant are ensuring that procedures ar in situ to make sure that each one clothes as well as repaired and re-inspected don't attend packing while not being checked by the detector. Clear separation and identification of the clothes that are waiting to be checked which ar being checked to be strictly created. Records ar being unbroken for all clothes that ar passing through the sensor and ar being completed as product passes through the machine to verify compliance with this demand. If the alarm sounds, all clothes on the halted transporter are being place into a sealed bag, white and fast in a very secure rejection box, to be set close to the sensor. The rejection bin ar being taken to a clearly marked space and totally checked for contamination by the allotted person. If the metal components ar found and also the garment passes through the conveyor industrial metal detectors with success, the garment are often came back to the majority. If the metal half can't be found, the contaminated product are being place into a polybag with details clearly marked thereon and so placed within the rejection bin (s. photo) fast off from the manufacturing plant floor and also the GARMENT are BEING DESTROYED when authorized close by the manufacturing plant manager. Under NO circumstances will it's came back to stock for cargo.  If a product is metal detected in its packaging, take away the packaging and sight the merchandise and packaging on an individual basis as some packaging will contain traces of metal, particularly if recycled, e.g. card, thus might forestall the merchandise being rejected. The rejection bin ar being fast with a chosen person holding the key. The bin has a slit at the highest through that the garment are often more matured. The slit is being large enough to let the garment match through, howeversufficiently little to avoid a hand fitting through it. Any action is being recorded consequently and any found metal components ar being taped firmly to the metal detection failure record by sticky tape confirming supply of stuff and action taken to stop future contamination. Records of garment destruction ar being unbroken for a minimum of five years for auditing functions. After the tested merchandise ar packed in a very carton, the carton ar being marked with a stamp stating date and ‘tested’. Any merchandise that ar being came back from the {storage ara|cargo area|cargo deck|cargo hold|hold|enclosure} / warehouse to the sewing/finishing floor are being checked once more with the commercial sensor and also the cartons should be re-stamped with date and ‘tested’. Requirements on the sensor machine and accessories:  There ar two sorts of conveyor metal detectors:  General Purpose Metal Detectors, that sight all metals (use them for clothes that don't have any metal parts like zippers, press studs, buckles etc.)  Ferrous solely Metal Detectors (use them to examine clothes that contain approved non-ferrous, non-magnetic components).  We advocate to use metal sightors that detect metal metals solely, so clothes are often more matured the detector with metal parts on like zippers, press studs, buckles etc.    Please specify once ordering parts that they have to be non-ferrous and non-magnetic.  A complete metal detection system contains of a digital sensor, transporter, alarm reject system and take a look atsign. Any new metal detectors purchased should have a printer or production information recording facility to record standardization checks, the fashion numbers of product detected and contaminants detected. The {metal sightor|detector|sensor|sensing element} ought to be ready to detect a metal half that is akin to a diameter of one.2mm metal sphere at any purpose of the sensor aperture at the equipped belt speed. The sphere ought to be stainless steel of AISI 52100 grade with AFBMA GD ten size tolerance mounted on a take a look at card. Please solely use approved take a look at cards from nominative suppliers/manufacturers, don'tstructure your own! The take a look at card should be obtainable in the least times with the sensor it belongs to. In case of clothes with accessories, the sensor should be capable of ignoring a sample of non-ferrous accessories and permitting it to pass unseen. just in case of clothes while not accessories, the needle detector should a minimum of ignore a non-ferrous take a look at coin. A sample to check your machine are often obtained from the machine manufacturer. When passing the one.2mm take a look at card with the accessories or the take a look at coin, the needle sightor should detect the one.2mm metal take a look at card. Machines should have associate degree sonic alarm with automatic belt stop just in case any metal is detected. The transporter should not be ready to operate once the detector is faulty or changed. The sonic alarm and transporter ought to solely be capable of being re-set by a key switch. Metal detectors should be put in to the manufacturer’s tips and also the manufacturer should approve the sitting of metal detectors. Power fluctuation causes false alarms. thus the installation of a regulator can minimize the matter. All metal parts should be non-ferrous to submit to a metal sensor. Non-ferrous (non-detectable) and nickel free metal parts (such as snaps, rivets, zippers etc.) ought to be used in the least times and ar necessary for childrens wear to avoid warning throughout the detection. A special coating is applied to those parts creating them non-ferrous. thus it should be ensured that the trim provider is alerted to deliver non-ferrous parts for such clothes. The manufacturing plant ought to make sure this can be the case by checking incoming things with a metal detector before attaching them in bulk. Machine Location and Set-up:  The sensor ought to be placed at the top of production (after all stitching operations, attachment of swing tickets and packing) in a very therefore known as flying field system. The detection machine ought to be positioned [*fr1] into the packing space, then protected and separated by a solid panel/wall (fence isn't comfortable, as things are often more matured it), therefore the product ends on the opposite facet through the machine in associate degree isolated metal free zone/area. {this is|this is often|this will be} to eliminate any external interference and to avoid that merchandise can bypass the metal detection by mistake. Please see icon for flying field system: industrial sensor setup Industrial sensor location The detector should be put in in a very permanent location freed from alternative metal objects like metal frames, doors, shelves etc. to avoid electrical interference. It is suggested that the manufacturing plant has a minimum of two conveyor metal detectors in the least times, to be ready to keep on checking just in case the one among them breaks down. It has to be ensured tho' that any spare sightor is in sensible operating order and ready to detect a metal a part of one.2mm metal sphere. Best observe are often found in victimization two sensors placed at ninety degrees or perhaps through a twin head metal detector. Position across the transporter in a very nine purpose check. Only authorized personnel ought to have a key that controls set-up and standardization of the machine. The key should not be left within the machine. Only authorized and trained personnel ought to be in operation and maintaining the sensor. The coaching ought to be control by the manufacturer or associate degree approved agent and trained employees ought to be ready to build minor changes once required. Records should be unbroken of all coaching, maintenance, service and repairs. The in operation personnel ought to be professionalized as full time staff. An organization chart with the names of individuals answerable and their photograph should be announce at this space (incl. the person answerable of the method likewise as the other operators). The metal detection policy should be translated into the native language, displayed wherever applicable and also the management should make sure that staff absolutely perceive the policy. The policy ought to be a part of your induction programmer for brand spanking new staff. Cellular phones and alternative electronic devices should be unbroken off from the detector throughout operation. The supervisor ought to make sure that the allotted personnel should not wear consumer goods with pockets and may not wear things of bimetal origin (e.g. wrist joint watches, rings, mobile phones, belts etc.) or carry a cell phone whereas in operation the machine. Uniforms for the authorised staff operating within the metal free port ought to have a distinct color to the remainder of the manufacturing plant. The ara the metal checked merchandise are going into, must be a secured ‘metal free zone’ (so e.g. no clippers or scissors for cutting gum tape allowed), that's not too open and segregated/separated/isolated to avoid any potential contamination with the continuing production. The zone must be declared and clearly marked as metal free and solely authorised personnel ought to be allowed into the zone. This once more ought to be clearly marked and communicated to everyone and personnel ought to be known as authorised, e.g. through totally different colored uniforms or ID cards. The fencing of this zone ought to be solid, so it are often avoided that metal objects are often more matured the fence and cause contamination. Entry to the present space should be restricted and monitored. nobody ought to be allowed access carrying any metal tool, e.g. scissors, blades, clippers, needle, stapling machine and or spare metal parts. Unauthorized personnel ar prohibited from accessing the metal free space. Anybody getting into the metal free port ought to be recorded with name, signature, in-time, out-time, purpose and signatures by person answerable & manager and once more once going the realm. The entrance to the metal free port ought to be fast throughout breaks and at the top of the day whenguaranteeing that nobody is left behind. All product should submit to the sensor into the secured ‘metal free zone’. Once the merchandise has more matured the sensor, it should be placed in a very selected quarantine  space inside the metal free port till the subsequent standardization check has been with success completed, solely then will the merchandise be discharged from the quarantine space for additional packing. Packing will occur during this metal free port, however no kimbal/tag guns ought to be used. Hangers are often inserted into clothes and or place into the cartons during this space. Tools that ar employed in the metal free port ought to be numbered, recorded and unbroken at fastened places. The manager ought to check quantities of those tools before and when operating.

Invention of Touch Screen and How it Works

Sunday, 4 September 2016

Invention of Touch Screen and How it Works




Automobiles, airplanes, computers, and steam engines—touchscreens belong within the company of those illustrious inventions as a result of they lack a novel discoverer and a definitive, "Eureka" moment of invention: in alternative words, no single man or girl fictional the touchscreen.

The first invention that bears any reasonably likeness to employing a fashionable touchscreen was known as a light-weight pen (featured within the image up above), a stylus with a electric eye in one finish, and a wire running into the pc at the opposite finish, that would draw graphics on a screen. it absolutely was developed within the early Nineteen Fifties and shaped a neighborhood of 1 of the primary pc systems to feature graphics, Project windstorm. light-weight pens did not extremely work like fashionable touchscreens, however, as a result of there was nothing special concerning the screen itself: all the clever stuff happened within the pen and therefore the pc it absolutely was wired up to.

Elographics Seventies touchscreen style from USA Patent three,911,215.

During the Sixties and early Seventies, another key strand within the development of touchscreens came from the work of pc scientists UN agency specialised in a very field known as human-computer interaction (HCI), that sought-after to bridge the gap between individuals and computers. Among them were politico Engelbart, discoverer of the pc mouse; Ivan Sutherland, a pioneer of tricks and virtual reality; and Alan Kay, a colleague of Sutherland's UN agency helped to pioneer the graphical program (or GUI—the picture-based desktop used on nearly all fashionable computers).

The first gismo that worked in any manner sort of a fashionable touchscreen was known as a "Discriminating Contact detector," and it absolutely was proprietary on Oct seven, 1975 by martyr S. Hurst and William C. Colwell of Elographics, Inc. very like a contemporary resistive touchscreen, it absolutely was a tool with 2 electrically conducting contact layers separated by associate insulating layer that you simply may press in conjunction with a pen. Crucially, it absolutely was designed to be operated "with a piece instrument [the patent drawings show a pen] and not by any portion of a writer's hand". thus it wasn't sort of a fashionable, finger-operated touchscreen device.

 Early touchscreen by Elographics was proprietary in 1975. it's associate outer case (26, yellow) and a high contact layer (27, orange) on that you'll be able to write with something you wish (28). As you scribble away, you press the highest contact layer (blue, 23) down onto very cheap one (10, green) by squashing the little, well-spaced material buttons (dark blue, 25). associate conductor (12) picks up the contact and uses resistance to work out that a part of the screen you have touched. From USA Patent #3,911,215: Discriminating Contact detector by martyr S. Hurst and William C. Colwell, Elographics, Inc., courtesy folks Patent and Trademark workplace.
An Apple Newton next to associate Apple iPhone.

Many people assume touchscreens solely arrived once Steve Jobs undraped Apple's iPhone in 2007—but touch-operated, hand-held computers had already been around for twenty years by then. one amongst the primary was the Linus Write-Top, an outsized pill pc free in 1987. 5 years later, Apple free the relative of its iPhone within the form of Newton, a hand-held pc factory-made by the japanese Sharp Corporation. Operated by a pen-like stylus, it featured pioneering however somewhat erratic handwriting recognition however was ne'er a poster success. Touchscreen input and handwriting recognition conjointly featured within the Palm series of PDAs (personal digital assistants), that were massively common within the mid-1990s.

From iPhones and iPads ,Andriod to ebooks and tablets, all fashionable touchscreen gadgets owe one thing to those pioneering inventors and their scribbling machines!


Airbus Electrical System Wiring Schematics

Monday, 2 May 2016

Airbus Electrical System Wiring Schematics








These schematics square measure simply tailored several} craft panel installations and there square measure many common parts that would be used for any craft panel. it's additionally a wonderful example of real-life implementation of the open supply astronautics styles originally from Vx Aviation that square measure enclosed within the Maker Plane repository, The repair shed Workshop. you may see installation of the subsequent open supply avionics:
  1. AXIS-9A Dynon Wiring Hub
  2. AXIS-25A Avionics Cross-connect Wiring Hub
  3. GBX-1A Avionics Ground Bus
  4. AMX-2A 10 Channel Audio Mixer
  5. IL-6A Lamp Controller
  6. The schematics include the following diagrams to help you with your own panel designs:
  7. Master Switch and Starter
  8. Ignition
  9. Avionics Master
  10. EFIS wiring
  11. EMS
  12. Autopilot
  13. Trim
  14. Lights (NAV, Strobe, Landing, Cabin etc)
  15. Audio
  16. Smoke (Vern does aerobatic flying!)
  17. Infinity Grip wiring
  18. Wig-wag oscillator driver
  19. Servo Controller   
 This is a fantastic resource and hope that it helps you in your own project!  This essentially takes care of ninety nine of the LSA paradigm electrical system.

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