Pulse Semiconductor Designing Battery-backed MEMORY using high speed SRAM

Saturday, 7 November 2015

The structure of a traditional embedded system has not modified for several decades. Figure one shows the block level diagram of a typical embedded system. A microcontroller or microchip is at the center of the system. relying upon the applying, system designers add or take away interfaces and peripherals as required. If the interior memory of the controller isn't ample, external reminiscences like Flash, SRAM and DRAMs ar used. Typically, Flash holds the code that's dead by the controller whereas SRAMs ar accustomed store runtime temporary variables and retain essential blocks of application knowledge. Power budget and performance have forever been 2 of the shaping criteria for choice of system parts, be it the controller or any peripherals. If performance is essential, designers tend to pick out the quickest parts, commercialism off for the next power budget. Similarly, if power is that the most significant criteria— like in a very battery-backed system—then designers tend to pick out parts with the smallest amount power consumption. As a result, embedded systems ar typically classified into 3 categories:
1. forever “ON” Systems: These systems guarantee that they're going to forever be power-driven from Associate in Nursing uninterrupted power supply. These ar high performance systems designed to control at the best frequency of operation.
 2.Battery-powered Systems: Associate in Nursing on-board battery is that the solely supply of power for these systems (i.e. a mobile phone). whereas performance is a crucial criteria for such systems, having longer battery life first-rate the priority list. thus these systems ar designed with parts that consume the bottom power.
3.Battery-backed Systems: These systems should be able to operate dependably even though they lose their aboard power offer. To avoid the loss of essential knowledge throughout these power failures, system designers offer atiny low battery (typically a 240mAh coin battery) to produce make a copy for essential functions like SRAM retention and maintaining the period clock (RTC). A battery-backed system operates on the out there power offer throughout traditional operational conditions. betting on the memory mapping, it will execute code from Flash then store ends up in SRAM. It becomes essential to store this knowledge even throughout power failures. Figure 1. diagram of a typical embedded system
Figure 2. Power consumption pattern of a battery-backed system to handle this issue, the SRAM is connected to Associate in Nursing alternate on board battery. throughout traditional operation, the on-board offer powers the system, and through equipment failure, a supervisor chip can switch the SRAM offer to the aboard battery and place the SRAM in its standby mode of operation. sit down with “Design Recommendation for Battery-Backed SRAMs” for additional details on specific battery-backed system implementation techniques.

Figure two shows the everyday power usage of SRAM in a very battery-backed system. The supervisor routes the board power offer throughout traditional modes of operation. On equipment failure, the SRAM is switched to the on-board battery and is disabled by the supervisor chip. The system will stay during this mode for as long because the battery lasts. Once board power offer resumes, the supervisor chip can bit by bit resume powering the SRAM

Networking basic mcq answers

Tuesday, 27 October 2015

Basic of Computer Networking Technology

■ Network consists of 2 or additional entities sharing
resources and data.
■ Samples of basic networks embody your human
network, faculty lunchrooms, eating house feeding,
and business contact development.
■ The aptitude to share is increased once data
is keep on computers.
■ Laptop networks incorporates 2 or additional
computers that area unit connected and ready to
■ Networked computers share resources and
■ Powerful networks result once further computers
are additional to the communication potentialities.
■ As additional and additional information becomes offered over a
network, some reasonably an effect system should be
■ The hierarchy of information ought to be utilized in network
■ Access to information keep to a higher place during this chain is additional
strictly controlled, which suggests fewer individuals will
view that information.
■ information is outlined as a chunk or items of knowledge.
■ the gathering, correct manipulation, and effective tracking makes information
management on networks therefore vital.

Basic MCQ questions Computer Fundamentals

Tuesday, 15 September 2015

Basic MCQ questions Computer Fundamentals

1. What are the five basic operations performed by the computer?

2. Define ALU, CU and CPU.

3. Choose the correct answer.
 (a) The task of performing arithmetic and logical operations is called: (i) ALU (ii) editing (iii)      storage (iv) Output
 (b) The ALU and CU jointly are known as (i) RAM (ii) ROM (iii) CPU (iv) None of above
 (c) The process of producing results from the data for getting useful information is called: (i) output (ii) input (iii) processing (iv) storage

Pros and cons of drone the future technology

Tuesday, 18 August 2015

 Pros and Cons of Drone the future Technology

Unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones, became a vital and polemic a part of military capability in recent years. they're conjointly utilized in agriculture, for picture taking and multiple different applications that need low cost and in depth aerial police investigation. however thus far of these drones have had human pilots; the distinction is that their pilots ar on the bottom and fly the craft remotely.

The next step with drone technology is to develop machines that fly themselves, gap them up to a wider vary of applications. For this to happen, drones should be able to sense and reply to their native surroundings, sterilization their height and flying flight so as to avoid colliding with different objects in their path. In nature, birds, fish and insects will all congregate in swarms, every animal responding to its neighbor virtually instantly to permit the swarm to fly or swim as one unit. Drones will emulate this.

With reliable autonomy and collision turning away, drones will begin to require on tasks too dangerous or remote for humans to hold out: checking power lines, as an example, or delivering medical provides in AN emergency. Drone delivery machines are going to be able to notice the most effective route to their destination, and take into consideration different flying vehicles and obstacles. In agriculture, autonomous drones will collect and method large amounts of visual knowledge from the air, permitting precise and economical use of inputs like fertilizer and irrigation.

In Jan 2014, Intel and Ascending Technologies showcased model multi-copter drones that might navigate an on-stage obstacle course and mechanically avoid those that walked into their path. The machines use Intel’s Real Sense camera module, that weighs simply 8g and is a smaller amount than 4mm thick. This level of collision turning away can lead off a way forward for shared airspace, with several drones flying in proximity to humans and in operation in and close to the designed surroundings to perform a large number of tasks. Drones ar primarily robots in operation in 3, instead of 2, dimensions; advances in next-generation artificial intelligence technology can accelerate this trend.

Flying vehicles can ne'er be safe, whether or not operated by humans or as intelligent machines. For widespread adoption, sense and avoid drones should be able to operate dependably within the most troublesome conditions: at midnight, in blizzards or mud storms. not like our current digital mobile devices (which are literally immobile, since we've to hold them around), drones are going to be transformational as they're self-mobile and have the capability of flying within the three-dimensional world that's on the far side our direct human reach. Once present, they'll immensely expand our presence, productivity and human expertise.

Basic About 3D Printing

Sunday, 9 August 2015

About 3D Printing

3D printing (also recognize as additive manufacturing) could be a processes wont to build a three-dimensional object while not the employment of dies, molds or machining. In 3D printing additive processes square measure used, within which sequential layers of fabric square measure arranged  down beneath pc management.These objects will typically be of nearly any form or pure mathematics, and square measure created from a 3D model or another electronic knowledge supply. 3d printing so allows to production of elements which might not be doable with ancient producing techniques. A 3D printer could be a style of industrial automaton, and may vary from tiny scale shopper models to giant plant units.

3D printing within the term's original sense refers to processes that consecutive deposit material onto a powder bed with inkjet printer heads. a lot of recently the which means of the term has distended to include a wider sort of techniques like extrusion and sintering based mostly processes. Technical standards typically use the term additive producing for this broader sense.


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